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                                                    RAILWAY TRACKING SYSTEM






        In this project a train can automatically change track of the railway lines.

        In this we use magnetic sensors on three tracks, when the train is coming from any of the opposite track then the magnetic sensors senses it and automatically changes the path.

        It will change the path where the other track is empty. On the other hand we also use magnetic sensors which detect that the track is empty or not.

        If the track is empty then it automatically changes the track of the incoming train to the empty track. For we uses dc motor which rotates the rotating platform.

        This rotating Platform is connected to the three tracks, so that when first track is free, it will rotate once and the train can pass. Similarly when second track is free it rotates twice and similarly to third track.

        Hence train automatically shifted its track. 

        This reduces manpower and saves time also.






To make the robots mobile we need to have motors and the control circuitry that could control the motors. There are different kinds of motors available for different application.


1.     DC motor

2.     Stepper motor

3.     Servo motor


DC motors


          These are the motors that are commonly found in the toys and the tape recorders. These motors change the direction of rotation by changing the polarity. Most chips can't pass enough current or voltage to spin a motor. Also, motors tend to be electrically noisy (spikes) and can slam power back into the control lines when the motor direction or speed is changed.

Specialized circuits (motor drivers) have been developed to supply motors with power and to isolate the other ICs from electrical problems. These circuits can be designed such that they can be completely separate boards, reusable from project to project.

A very popular circuit for driving DC motors (ordinary or gearhead) is called an H-bridge. It's called that because it looks like the capital letter 'H' on classic schematics. The great ability of an H-bridge circuit is that the motor can be driven forward or backward at any speed, optionally using a completely independent power source.

This circuit known as the H-bridge (named for its topological similarity to the letter "H") is commonly used to drive motors. In this circuit two of four transistors are selectively enabled to control current flow through a motor.

opposite pair of transistors (Transistor One and Transistor Three) is enabled, allowing current to flow through the motor. The other pair is disabled, and can be thought of as out of the circuit.

By determining which pair of transistors is enabled, current can be made to flow in either of the two directions through the motor. Because permanent-magnet motors reverse their direction of turn when the current flow is reversed, this circuit allows bidirectional control of the motor.






Components required:


MCU 89S52


Crystal 11.592 MHz- 1 nos.

On/off Switch- 1 nos.

Diodes IN 4007- 10 nos.

Optocoupler 817- 2nos.

Cap 10f,0.1 f,330f

Transistors -547or 548

Resistances 330 Ω,8.2kΩ,30pf




IC7805  voltage Regulator

Motors dc 3NOS

Infrared sensors set

Copper Clad board

Ply board

Ferric Chloride


Soldering iron

Soldering wire




Hardware required-


8051 programmer universal kit

CRO 20 Mhz

Digital multimeter


Software Required:-