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RAIN GAUGE

 

 

Introduction:

When rain gauge sensor is placed in a rain condition. Then rain gauge sensor detect the signal and fed it to the operational amplifier. Which amlifies the signal.

 

Then this signal is fed to the ADC IC 0804. this converts the analog to digital convertor.

Then this digital signal is fed to the microcontroller circuit 8051..this executes the signal and display it on the lcd. The buzzer system is attached to the microcontroller to show that rain is heavy or moderate. The rain is displayed on the LCD in cm’s.

 

We will use 89s51 Microcontroller

 

LCD will be 16*2. HT44780 standard LCD

 

A rain gauge (also known as a udometer or a pluviometer [Pluviograph ] or a cup) is a type of instrument used by meteorologists and hydrologists to gather and measure the amount of liquid precipitation (as opposed to solid precipitation that is measured by a snow gauge) over a set period of time.

The first known records of rainfalls were kept by the Ancient Greeks about 500 B.C. This was followed 100 years later by people in India using bowls to record the rainfall. The readings from these were correlated against expected growth, and used as a basis for land taxes. In the Arthashastra, used for example in Magadha, precise standards were set as to grain production. Each of the state storehouses were equipped with a standardised rain gauge to classify land for taxation purposes.[1]

Some sources state that the Cheugugi of Korea was the world's first gauge, while other sources say that Jang Yeong Sil developed or refined an existing gauge

Principles

Most rain gauges generally measure the precipitation in millimeters. The level of rainfall is sometimes reported as inches or centimeters.

Rain gauge amounts are read either manually or by AWS (Automatic Weather Station). The frequency of readings will depend on the requirements of the collection agency. Some countries will supplement the paid weather observer with a network of volunteers to obtain precipitation data (and other types of weather) for sparsely populated areas.

In most cases the precipitation is not retained, however some stations do submit rainfall (and snowfall) for testing, which is done to obtain levels of pollutants.

Rain gauges have their limitations. Attempting to collect rain data in a hurricane can be nearly impossible and unreliable (even if the equipment survives) due to wind extremes. Also, rain gauges only indicate rainfall in a localized area. For virtually any gauge, drops will stick to the sides or funnel of the collecting device, such that amounts are very slightly underestimated, and those of .01 inches or .25 mm may be recorded as a trace.

Another problem encountered is when the temperature is close to or below freezing. Rain may fall on the funnel and freeze or snow may collect in the gauge and not permit any subsequent rain to pass through.

Rain gauges, like most meteorological instruments, should be placed far enough away from structures and trees to ensure that any effects caused are minimized.

Types

Types of rain gauges include graduated cylinders, weighing gauges, tipping bucket gauges, and simple buried pit collectors. Each type has its advantages and disadvantages for collecting rain data.

 Standard rain gauge

The standard rain gauge, developed around the start of the 20th century, consists of a funnel attached to a graduated cylinder that fits into a larger container. If the water overflows from the graduated cylinder the outside container will catch it. So when it is measured, the cylinder will be measured and then the excess will be put in another cylinder and measured. In most cases the cylinder is marked in mm and in the picture above will measure up to 25 mm (0.98 in) of rainfall. Each horizontal line on the cylinder is 0.2 mm (0.007 in). The larger container collects any rainfall amounts over 25 mm that flows from a small hole near the top of the cylinder. A metal pipe is attached to the container and can be adjusted to ensure the rain gauge is level. This pipe then fits over a metal rod that has been placed in the ground.

Weighing precipitation gauge

A weighing-type precipitation gauge consists of a storage bin, which is weighed to record the mass. Certain models measure the mass using a pen on a rotating drum, or by using a vibrating wire attached to a data logger. The advantages of this type of gauge over tipping buckets are that it does not underestimate intense rain, and it can measure other forms of precipitation, including rain, hail and snow. These gauges are, however, more expensive and require more maintenance than tipping bucket gauges.

The weighing-type recording gauge may also contain a device to measure the quantity of chemicals contained in the location's atmosphere. This is extremely helpful for scientists studying the effects of greenhouse gases released into the atmosphere and their effects on the levels of the acid rain.

Tipping bucket rain gauge

 

The interior of a tipping bucket rain gauge

The tipping bucket rain gauge consists of a large copper cylinder set into the ground. At the top of the cylinder is a funnel that collects and channels the precipitation. The precipitation falls onto one of two small buckets or levers which are balanced in same manner as a scale (or child's seesaw). After an amount of precipitation equal to 0.2 mm (0.007 in) falls, the lever tips and an electrical signal is sent to the recorder. The recorder consists of a pen mounted on an arm attached to a geared wheel that moves once with each signal sent from the collector. When the wheel turns the pen arm moves either up or down leaving a trace on the graph and at the same time making a loud click. Each jump of the arm is sometimes referred to as a 'click' in reference to the noise. The chart is measured in 10 minute periods (vertical lines) and 0.4 mm (0.015 in) (horizontal lines) and rotates once every 24 hours and is powered by a clockwork motor that must be manually wound.

 

The exterior of a tipping bucket rain gauge

The tipping bucket rain gauge is not as accurate as the standard rain gauge because the rainfall may stop before the lever has tipped. When the next period of rain begins it may take no more than one or two drops to tip the lever. This would then indicate that 0.2 mm (0.007 in) has fallen when in fact only a minute amount has. Tipping buckets also tend to underestimate the amount of rainfall, particularly in snowfall and heavy rainfall events[8][9]. The advantage of the tipping bucket rain gauge is that the character of the rain (light, medium or heavy) may be easily obtained. Rainfall character is decided by the total amount of rain that has fallen in a set period (usually 1 hour) and by counting the number of 'clicks' in a 10 minute period the observer can decide the character of the rain.

Modern tipping rain gauges consist of a plastic collector balanced over a pivot. When it tips, it actuates a switch (such as a reed switch) which is then electronically recorded or transmitted to a remote collection station.

Tipping gauges can also incorporate weighing gauges. In these gauges, a strain gauge is fixed to the collection bucket so that the exact rainfall can be read at any moment. Each time the collector tips, the strain gauge (weight sensor) is re-zeroed to null out any drift.

To measure the water equivalent of frozen precipitation, a tipping bucket may be heated to melt any ice and snow that is caught in its funnel. Without a heating mechanism, the funnel often becomes clogged during a frozen precipitation event, and thus no precipitation can be measured[citation needed]. The Automated Surface Observing System (ASOS) uses heated tipping buckets to measure precipitation [10]

Optical rain gauge

These have a row of collection funnels. In an enclosed space below each is a laser diode and a phototransistor detector. When enough water is collected to make a single drop, it drips from the bottom, falling into the laser beam path. The sensor is set at right angles to the laser so that enough light is scattered to be detected as a sudden flash of light. The flashes from these photodetectors are then read and transmitted or recorded.

Principles

Most rain gauges generally measure the precipitation in millimeters. The level of rainfall is sometimes reported as inches or centimeters.

Rain gauge amounts are read either manually or by AWS (Automatic Weather Station). The frequency of readings will depend on the requirements of the collection agency. Some countries will supplement the paid weather observer with a network of volunteers to obtain precipitation data (and other types of weather) for sparsely populated areas.

In most cases the precipitation is not retained, however some stations do submit rainfall (and snowfall) for testing, which is done to obtain levels of pollutants.

Rain gauges have their limitations. Attempting to collect rain data in a hurricane can be nearly impossible and unreliable (even if the equipment survives) due to wind extremes. Also, rain gauges only indicate rainfall in a localized area. For virtually any gauge, drops will stick to the sides or funnel of the collecting device, such that amounts are very slightly underestimated, and those of .01 inches or .25 mm may be recorded as a trace.

Another problem encountered is when the temperature is close to or below freezing. Rain may fall on the funnel and freeze or snow may collect in the gauge and not permit any subsequent rain to pass through.

Rain gauges, like most meteorological instruments, should be placed far enough away from structures and trees to ensure that any effects caused are minimized.

Types

Types of rain gauges include graduated cylinders, weighing gauges, tipping bucket gauges, and simple buried pit collectors. Each type has its advantages and disadvantages for collecting rain data.

Standard rain gauge

The standard rain gauge, developed around the start of the 20th century, consists of a funnel attached to a graduated cylinder that fits into a larger container. If the water overflows from the graduated cylinder the outside container will catch it. So when it is measured, the cylinder will be measured and then the excess will be put in another cylinder and measured. In most cases the cylinder is marked in mm and in the picture above will measure up to 25 mm (0.98 in) of rainfall. Each horizontal line on the cylinder is 0.2 mm (0.007 in). The larger container collects any rainfall amounts over 25 mm that flows from a small hole near the top of the cylinder. A metal pipe is attached to the container and can be adjusted to ensure the rain gauge is level. This pipe then fits over a metal rod that has been placed in the ground.

Weighing precipitation gauge

A weighing-type precipitation gauge consists of a storage bin, which is weighed to record the mass. Certain models measure the mass using a pen on a rotating drum, or by using a vibrating wire attached to a data logger. The advantages of this type of gauge over tipping buckets are that it does not underestimate intense rain, and it can measure other forms of precipitation, including rain, hail and snow. These gauges are, however, more expensive and require more maintenance than tipping bucket gauges.

The weighing-type recording gauge may also contain a device to measure the quantity of chemicals contained in the location's atmosphere. This is extremely helpful for scientists studying the effects of greenhouse gases released into the atmosphere and their effects on the levels of the acid rain.

Tipping bucket rain gauge

 

The interior of a tipping bucket rain gauge

The tipping bucket rain gauge consists of a large copper cylinder set into the ground. At the top of the cylinder is a funnel that collects and channels the precipitation. The precipitation falls onto one of two small buckets or levers which are balanced in same manner as a scale (or child's seesaw). After an amount of precipitation equal to 0.2 mm (0.007 in) falls, the lever tips and an electrical signal is sent to the recorder. The recorder consists of a pen mounted on an arm attached to a geared wheel that moves once with each signal sent from the collector. When the wheel turns the pen arm moves either up or down leaving a trace on the graph and at the same time making a loud click. Each jump of the arm is sometimes referred to as a 'click' in reference to the noise. The chart is measured in 10 minute periods (vertical lines) and 0.4 mm (0.015 in) (horizontal lines) and rotates once every 24 hours and is powered by a clockwork motor that must be manually wound.

The exterior of a tipping bucket rain gauge

The tipping bucket rain gauge is not as accurate as the standard rain gauge because the rainfall may stop before the lever has tipped. When the next period of rain begins it may take no more than one or two drops to tip the lever. This would then indicate that 0.2 mm (0.007 in) has fallen when in fact only a minute amount has. Tipping buckets also tend to underestimate the amount of rainfall, particularly in snowfall and heavy rainfall events The advantage of the tipping bucket rain gauge is that the character of the rain (light, medium or heavy) may be easily obtained. Rainfall character is decided by the total amount of rain that has fallen in a set period (usually 1 hour) and by counting the number of 'clicks' in a 10 minute period the observer can decide the character of the rain.

Modern tipping rain gauges consist of a plastic collector balanced over a pivot. When it tips, it actuates a switch (such as a reed switch) which is then electronically recorded or transmitted to a remote collection station.

Tipping gauges can also incorporate weighing gauges. In these gauges, a strain gauge is fixed to the collection bucket so that the exact rainfall can be read at any moment. Each time the collector tips, the strain gauge (weight sensor) is re-zeroed to null out any drift.

To measure the water equivalent of frozen precipitation, a tipping bucket may be heated to melt any ice and snow that is caught in its funnel. Without a heating mechanism, the funnel often becomes clogged during a frozen precipitation event, and thus no precipitation can be measured[citation needed]. The Automated Surface Observing System (ASOS) uses heated tipping buckets to measure precipitation.

Optical rain gauge

These have a row of collection funnels. In an enclosed space below each is a laser diode and a phototransistor detector. When enough water is collected to make a single drop, it drips from the bottom, falling into the laser beam path. The sensor is set at right angles to the laser so that enough light is scattered to be detected as a sudden flash of light. The flashes from these photodetectors are then read and transmitted or recorded.

What is a Tipping Bucket Rain Gauge?

A tipping bucket rain gauge is a meteorological device that measures the amount of precipitation, or rain, that has fallen. It is one of the most common tools used to measure rainfall. Tipping bucket rain gauges are a really interesting and fun way for you and your children to learn about the weather, and predict what the weather will be in your area.

 

Each time the bucket fills with rain, the see-saw tips. The total rainfall is measured by counting how many times the bucket tips.

How a Tipping Bucket Gauge Works

A tipping bucket rain gauge has several components that allow it to accurately measure of rainfall. As rain falls it lands in the funnel of the tipping bucket rain gauge. The rain travels down the funnel and drips into one of two very carefully calibrated ‘buckets’ balanced on a pivot (like a see-saw).

The top bucket is held in place by a magnet until it has filled to the calibrated amount (usually approximately 0.001 inches of rain). When the bucket has filled to this amount, the magnet will release its hold, causing the bucket to tip. The water then empties down a drainage hole and raises the other to sit underneath the funnel. When the bucket tips, it triggers a reed switch (or sensor), sending a message to the display or weather station.

Getting the Best Results from Your Rain Gauge

To get the most accurate results from a tipping bucket rain gauge, you need to properly install the rain gauge.

1.     The rain gauge must be positioned on a flat surface – if the surface isn’t flat, the see-saw may tip before the bucket has filled to the calibrated level, or not tip at all. If the bucket doesn't tip at the calibrated level, the rainfall calculated will not be correct. Use a spirit level to determine whether a surface is flat, and then fix the gauge to the flat surface to ensure you are getting an accurate reading.

2.     The rain gauge must be positioned on a surface that does not vibrate – surfaces such as a porch or fence can move and vibrate. The tipping bucket is very sensitive and any vibrations could cause the gauge to tip even if it is not raining.

3.     The instrument must not be positioned near trees – being positioned near trees could allow leaves or pollen to fall inside the funnel and block it, causing an inaccurate reading.

4.     It must not be positioned in a sheltered area – Being positioned in a sheltered location (such us beside your house or a fence) could significantly increase or decrease the amount of rain depending on the wind direction, and cause an inaccurate reading. The gauge should be positioned at least twice as far away from the object as the object’s height (e.g. if the fence is 6 feet high, the gauge should be positioned at least 12 feet away).

5.     Your weather equipment must not be located near any magnetic, steel, or iron objects – magnetic, steel, or iron objects can affect the amount of time the magnet will hold the bucket or whether it will hold it all, causing an inaccurate reading.

Go to the Tipping Bucket Rain Gauge Animation

Will a Rain Guage Measure Snow?

If it snows where you live, most rain gauges will not be able to measure the snow fall; snow will block the opening of the collection funnel. However, special snow gauges are available to measure this.

Following these recommendations should ensure your get an accurate result from your tipping bucket rain gauge. To find out more about rain gauges, measuring and forecasting the weather, visit The Weather Hut or Rain Gauges FAQ.

What Kind of Rain Gauge Do You Own?

Leave feedback in the weather forum on your favourite instrument. Together, we can determine the best types of rain gauges to buy based on user opinions and comments.

 

 

 

Measuring Rainfall

 

Rainfall is usually measured by first collecting it in a rain gauge. These special drums are then used to record the depth of the water inside. Rain gauges are usually about 50 cm tall and are placed on the ground just high enough to avoid splashes. Rain water that is caught in a funnel on top, runs down into a measuring cylinder below – where it can be recorded.

To make your own rain gauge to keep a record of how much rain falls, follow the instructions below.

 

 

About mcrocntroller

COMPONENT LIST                                   

 

RESISTORS

 

CAPACITORS

 

IC 741

 

BUZZER

 

TRANSISTERS (NPN AND PNP)

 

LCD

 

RAIN GAUGE SENSOR

 

MICROCONTROLLER 89S51

 

IC 804

 

CRYSTAL 12MHZ

 

TRANSFORMER 12-0-12V

 

IC 7805

 

LED’S

 

DIODES IN4007

 

 

 

Bibliography:

 

www.8051projects.net

 

www.ludhianaprojects.com

 

www.atmel.com

 

www.wikipedia.com

 

Books on MCU-

 

Ali mazidi