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In this project we will use motion sensor for detecting object in front of robot. These sensor will detect the signal and will give signal to  Signal conditioning circuit. It will give signal to microcontroller. Microcontroller will take action according to coming input. In this project we will use 8051 based project. We will give output to motors drive circuit. For motor drive we will use current amplifier.we will make another function in this project, when anybody pick the project, then buzzer starts automatically. Buzzer will stop with switch and halt the project till it gets reset by Hidden switch..we use two slow speed motor for running the platform of the small robot. In this project we use 89c2051 microcontroller as a main processor. We use this processor to run the vehicle. This controller is basically a  20 pin ic. In this project we use two sensor also. These sensor are connected to the port p3.4 and port p3.5




Pin no 20 is connected to the positive supply. In this project we provide a 5 volt dc power supply. This power supply is truly regulated power supply. Pin no 10 is connected to the negative supply. Here we supply a negative voltage on this pin. Crystal is connected to the pin no 4 and 5 of the microcontroller. Crystal provide a clock signal to run the vehicle and process all the internal requirement of the  circuit. We use two sensor and these two sensor are connected to the p3.4 and p3.5 of the microcontroller.  Infra red led is directly connected to the power supply. For the regulated power supply we use ic 7805 as a regulator to provide a fix 5 volt power supply.

Microcontroller provide a signal to the motor circuit. Motor is not directly connected with the microcontroller. For the safety of the main processor we interface the motor with optocoupler circuit. Here we use pc 817 ( 4 pin opto coupler) to interface the micro controller with  the motor circuit. We use H bridge circuit with the motor. H bridge basically control the movement of the motor. With the help of this H bridge we change the direction of the motor. We use four transistor circuit with each motor. We are using four transistor circuit. Out of these four transistor  two transistor is NPN and two transistor and PNP transistor.  One NPN and One PNP provide a one direction voltage and motor moves on one direction. Second NPN and second PNP transistor again change the direction of the motor automatically.





Microcontrollor AT89C2051 and H-Bridge driver L293D were used  to control direction and speed of motor.





                          Components required:


MCU 89c2051

Crystal 11.592 MHz- 1 nos.

On/off Switch- 1 nos.

Diodes IN 4001- 10 nos.

Optocoupler 817- 2nos.

Cap 10f,0.1 f,330f

Transistors -547or 548

Resistances 330 Ω,8.2kΩ,30pf


IC7805  voltage Regulator

Motors dc

Infrared sensors set

Copper Clad board

Ply board

Ferric Chloride


Soldering iron

Soldering wire



Universal Programmer


Software Required























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