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Obstacle detection using

efficient sound waves

 

 

 

 

 

 

ULTRASONIC CAR

AIM:- Ultrasonic car  using Ultrasonic sensors

 

HARDWARE REQUIRED:-

    Ultrasonic Piezoceramic Transducer Transmitter

    Ultrasonic Piezoceramic Transducer Receiver

    Microcontroller

    AF amplifier

    CMOS decade counter

    Op-Amp(IC-741)

    Frequency divider(IC-4017)

    Capacitors

    Resistors

    Transistors

 

 

 

OVERVIEW OF THE PROJECT:-

In this project we are using ultrasonic sensors for measuring distance from object. Advantage of using ultrasonic sensors is we car use in car to check object distance from car. It should be in cars. In this car we will use two motors . we will control motors using microcontroller 89s52. we will get signal from ultrasonic sensors and will display on LCD 16*2.

We will use port 0 for LCD display.

We will use DC geared 12v motors.

We are using 40kHz frequency Transmitter and receiver.

We will transmit data from transmitter then will amplify using opamp circuits. After amplification we will give signal to

Signal detector. We will use IN4148 diode for decoding purpose.

 

Or schottky dipde In 5819 .

We will then give signal to comparator circuit,

After comparing we will give signal to microntroller.

 

Microcontroller will get pulse at pin 2 and transmit at pin 3.

 

 

Ultrasonic Piezoceramic Transducer:-

Ultrasonic sensors typically have a piezoelectric ceramic transducer that converts an exciting electrical signal into ultrasonic energy bursts. The energy bursts travel from the ultrasonic sensor, bounce off objects, and are returned towards the sensor as echoes. Transducers are devices that convert electrical energy to mechanical energy, or vice versa. The transducer converts received echoes into analog electrical signals and produces it as output. Ultrasonic transducers operate to radiate ultrasonic waves through a medium such as air.

 

Relay Circuit:-

Humans can hear sound of up to 20 kHz frequency only. This proximity detector works at a frequency of 40 kHz. It uses two specially made ultrasonic transducers: One transducer emits 40 kHz sound, while the other receives 40 kHz sound and converts it

into electrical variations of the same frequency with the help of  relay circuit.

 

 

 

 

 

BLOCK DIAGRAM OF RELAY CIRCUIT:-

 

 

 

WORKING OF COMPLETE CIRCUIT:-

The   40 kHz   oscillator   is   built around transistors T1 (BC547) and T2 (BC547). If there is  a  solid  object  in  front  of  the  ultra- sonic transmitter module (TX1), some signals  will  be  reflected  back  and sensed  by  the  receiver  transducer (RX1). The 40 kHz ultrasonic signals are converted into 40 kHz electrical signals by the receiver and then amplified by transistors T3 (BC549) and T4 (BC558).

The amplified signal is still in the inaudible range, i.e., these cant be heard. So a frequency-divider stage using CMOS decade counter IC-4017 (IC1) is used at the output of the amplifier. IC1 (4017) divides the input frequency by 10, so the 40 kHz signal

 

becomes 4 kHz, which is within the audible range. The 4kHz signals are then fed to op-amp IC-741 (IC2), which  is  wired  either to an  earphone amplifier or microcontroller.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tx1 = Ultrasonic Transducer Transmitter (40 kHz)

Rx1 = Ultrasonic Transducer Receiver (40 kHz)

 

 

 

becomes 4 kHz, which is within the audible range. The 4kHz signals are then fed to op-amp IC-741 (IC2), which  is  wired  either to an  earphone amplifier or microcontroller.

 

APPLICATIONS:-

1). The circuit can be used as an electronic guard for the blind.  Blind persons keep it (along with 9V battery) in their pocket with earphone plugged to  their  ear. The transducer modules should be directed towards the walking path. If any object comes  in  front  or near by, they  will hear 4 kHz sound through the earphone and can change their path accordingly. One thing to be noted here is that while using this device, they have to avoid the company of pets. The reason is that pets can hear ultrasonic sound, which will irritate them and they will bark unnecessarily.

 

2). It can be used in cars, to help the drivers in backing up and avoid banging against some invisible objects. However, instead of earphones the sound in this case is heard through a speaker and there is also an LCD screen to visually assist the driver.

 

Bill of Material:-

 

Designator

Description

Comment

Value

89s51

Header, 20-Pin, Dual row

Header 20X2

 

4011

Header, 7-Pin, Dual row

Header 7X2A

 

4069

Header, 7-Pin, Dual row

Header 7X2A

 

BR

Full Wave Diode Bridge

Bridge1

 

C1

Capacitor

Cap

.22

C2

Capacitor

Cap

.1

C3

Polarized Capacitor (Radial)

35V

1000uF

C4

Polarized Capacitor (Radial)

Cap Pol1

470uf

C5

Capacitor

Cap

.1

C6

Polarized Capacitor (Radial)

Cap Pol1

470uf

C7

Capacitor

Cap

102

C8

Capacitor

Cap

.1uf

C9

Capacitor

Cap

102

C10

Capacitor

Cap

102

C11

Capacitor

Cap

102

C16

Capacitor

Cap

22pf

C17

Capacitor

Cap

22pF

C20

Capacitor

Cap

.1uf

C27

Polarized Capacitor (Radial)

Cap Pol1

10uf

D2

Default Diode

1N4148

 

D3

Default Diode

1N4148

 

LCD

Header, 16-Pin, Right Angle

Header 16H

 

Q1815

NPN Bipolar Transistor

NPN

 

R1

Resistor

Res1

1K

R2

Resistor

Res1

1K

R3

Resistor

Res1

1M

R4

Resistor

Res1

10K

R5

Resistor

Res1

10K

R6

Resistor

Res1

1K

R7

Resistor

Res1

100K

R8

Resistor

Res1

1K

R9

Resistor

Res1

1K

R10

Resistor

Res1

4K7

R11

Resistor

Res1

5K6

R15

Resistor

Res1

10K

R17

Resistor

Res1

10K

R18

Resistor

Res1

10K

R19

Resistor

Res1

47K

R20

Resistor

Res1

47K

Resv1

Tapped Resistor

Res Tap

4.7K

RST

Switch

SW-PB

 

RV1

Tapped Resistor

Res Tap

47K

RV2

Tapped Resistor

Res Tap

47K

RX

Crystal Oscillator

XTAL

 

S1

Switch

SW-PB

 

S2

Switch

SW-PB

 

SIPR

SIP Common Ground Resistor Pack

3k

 

T1

Transformer (Ideal)

Trans Ideal

 

TX

Crystal Oscillator

XTAL

 

U1

 

4011

 

U2

 

4069

 

U3

Very Low-Noise Quad Operational Amplifier

LM324

 

U4

Very Low-Noise Quad Operational Amplifier

LM324

 

U5

Very Low-Noise Quad Operational Amplifier

LM358N

 

X2

Crystal Oscillator

XTAL

 

 

 

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