go to main index know about us who we are and what we are provide ? we provide training on how to reach us send e-mail us







In this project we show that how we use automation system in train  ,

 By using this system in any vehicle , it is possible to move the vehicle on  predefined track with auto stop I provision. In this project we try to stop the train on minimum five stoppage and give a auto reverse logic for then end of path. By adding this logic with train we move the train for long time with out changing the direction,



In this project we use ic 89c51 microcontroller to control all the logic , movement of vehicle, stoppage of vehicle, and reverse action of vehicle with the help of this microcontroller and different sensorís.


In this project we use dc gear motor  to run the vehicle to and fro automatically. We use slow speed dc motor to increase the  torque and slow the speed of vehicle, this DC motor is  run by a 5 volt to 12 volt dc voltage. We use additional gear box if we want to slow down the speed.


In this project we use infra red sensor to stop the train and infra red sensor to reverse  and again forward the train.

So we use three pair of infra red reflective sensor in this project. One at the bottom of this train, second in the front of this train and third at the reverse of this train.

By using three sensor  we not only stop the train but also reverse the train.


As per logic in concern we use three  inputs in this project,  one from the  ground sensor and two from the front and back sensor.. Three input and one motor.


Here in this project we use dc motor to run the vehicle, for the dc motor we use H bridge  circuit in this project. H bridge circuit not only drive a sufficient power to dc motor but also provide a  forward and reverse logic to the motor .






What is Open SYSTEM?

   An open system is the normal desktop computer where you can use it for any tasks. If you want to process text documents you can install Ms-word if you want to send mail you can use outlook express and counts on.

What is Embedded System ?

 An embedded system is the system where you can use it for a specific task.


A microcontroller (often abbreviated MCU) is a single computer chip that executes a user program, normally for the purpose of controlling some device hence the name microcontroller.

 A microcontroller is differed from microprocessor in many ways. Basically microprocessors are the devices which can process huge amount of data. A microprocessor canít do anything on it own. Even to light a led a microprocessor needs minimum of a ROM, RAM, Latch, Address decoders, PORT controllers. But for the same application if you take a microcontroller you barely need a crystal and some capacitors.

 So from this you can understand how versatile the microcontroller is.


It is always good to know the market scenario before learning any thing. The following will explain the whole scenario of the embedded industry. This will make you to choose the best one for you.

Different microcontrollers in market.

        PIC             One of the famous microcontrollers used in the industries. It is based on RISC Architecture which makes the microcontroller process faster than other microcontroller.


        INTEL                  These are the first to manufacture microcontrollers. These are not as sophisticated other microcontrollers but still the easiest one to learn.


        Atmel                Atmelís AVR microcontrollers are one of the most powerful in the embedded industry. This is the only microcontroller having 1kb of ram even the entry stage. But it is unfortunate that in India we are unable to find this kind of microcontroller.


Intel 8051


Intel 8051 is CISC architecture which is easy to program in assembly language and also has a good support for High level languages.


The memory of the microcontroller can be extended up to 64k.


This microcontroller is one of the easiest microcontrollers to learn.


The 8051 microcontroller is in the field for more than 20 years. There are lots of books and study materials are readily available for 8051.





The best thing done by Intel is to give the designs of the 8051 microcontroller to everyone. So it is not the fact that Intel is the only manufacture for the 8051 there more than 20 manufactures, with each of minimum 20 models. Literally there are hundreds of models of  8051 microcontroller available in market to choose.  Some of the major manufactures of 8051 are



Components required:

Microcontroller 89c2051- 1nos.

Cystal 12 Mhz

Cap 1000Ķf,470Ķf,10Ķf,27pf

Res 100 ohm,10k ohm

Optocoupler pc817

Transistors 548 -4nos.

Tr 558- 4nos.

Ic7805- nos

Connecting wires

Soldering iron

General purpose PCB


Soldering wire


Notes By:


For microcontroller programming and PCB designing

Innovative project solutions

SCO-54, New Grain Market

Gill road ludhiana