this project we show that how we use automation system in train ,
using this system in any vehicle , it is possible to move the
vehicle on predefined track with auto stop I provision. In this
project we try to stop the train on minimum five stoppage and give a
auto reverse logic for then end of path. By adding this logic with
train we move the train for long time with out changing the
this project we use ic 89c51 microcontroller to control all the
logic , movement of vehicle, stoppage of vehicle, and reverse action
of vehicle with the help of this microcontroller and different
this project we use dc gear motor to run the vehicle to and fro
automatically. We use slow speed dc motor to increase the torque
and slow the speed of vehicle, this DC motor is run by a 5 volt to
12 volt dc voltage. We use additional gear box if we want to slow
down the speed.
this project we use infra red sensor to stop the train and infra red
sensor to reverse and again forward the train.
we use three pair of infra red reflective sensor in this project.
One at the bottom of this train, second in the front of this train
and third at the reverse of this train.
using three sensor we not only stop the train but also reverse the
per logic in concern we use three inputs in this project, one from
the ground sensor and two from the front and back sensor.. Three
input and one motor.
in this project we use dc motor to run the vehicle, for the dc motor
we use H bridge circuit in this project. H bridge circuit not only
drive a sufficient power to dc motor but also provide a forward and
reverse logic to the motor .
USE OF MICROCONTROLLER.
OUR PROJECT IS BASED ON THE EMBEDDED SYSTEM
What is Open SYSTEM?
open system is the normal desktop computer where you can use it for
any tasks. If you want to process text documents you can install
Ms-word if you want to send mail you can use outlook express and
What is Embedded System ?
embedded system is the system where you can use it for a specific
microcontroller (often abbreviated MCU) is a single computer chip
that executes a user program, normally for the purpose of
controlling some device hence the name microcontroller.
microcontroller is differed from microprocessor in many ways.
Basically microprocessors are the devices which can process huge
amount of data. A microprocessor canít do anything on it own. Even
to light a led a microprocessor needs minimum of a ROM, RAM, Latch,
Address decoders, PORT controllers. But for the same application if
you take a microcontroller you barely need a crystal and some
from this you can understand how versatile the microcontroller is.
is always good to know the market scenario before learning any
thing. The following will explain the whole scenario of the embedded
industry. This will make you to choose the best one for you.
Different microcontrollers in market.
One of the famous microcontrollers used in the industries. It is
based on RISC Architecture which makes the microcontroller process
faster than other microcontroller.
These are the first to manufacture microcontrollers. These are not
as sophisticated other microcontrollers but still the easiest one to
Atmelís AVR microcontrollers are one of the most powerful in the
embedded industry. This is the only microcontroller having 1kb of
ram even the entry stage. But it is unfortunate that in India we are
unable to find this kind of microcontroller.
Intel 8051 is CISC architecture which is easy to program in assembly
language and also has a good support for High level languages.
memory of the microcontroller can be extended up to 64k.
microcontroller is one of the easiest microcontrollers to learn.
8051 microcontroller is in the field for more than 20 years. There
are lots of books and study materials are readily available for
best thing done by Intel is to give the designs of the 8051
microcontroller to everyone. So it is not the fact that Intel is the
only manufacture for the 8051 there more than 20 manufactures, with
each of minimum 20 models. Literally there are hundreds of models
of 8051 microcontroller available in market to choose. Some of the
major manufactures of 8051 are
Microcontroller 89c2051- 1nos.
Cystal 12 Mhz
100 ohm,10k ohm
Transistors 548 -4nos.
General purpose PCB
microcontroller programming and PCB designing
Innovative project solutions
SCO-54, New Grain Market