We will use infrared
sensors for sensing purpose.
We will use 89c051 for
programming the different functions. And for giving limited control
to motor controlling circuit.
We will use controlling
circuit for Dc motor control.
S1 and s2 sensors will
be used for control purpose. When robot s1 sensor will move toward
line, after crossing black line it will generate a pulse and give to
controlling circuit which will stem s1 Dc motor and will continoue
s2 motor. In the same way s2 will help t keep the Robot on track.
This type of robotic
system can be used for Road and track based unmanned or automatic
This project also help
in industry for different luggage robots.
This project will help
to study about infrared sensors,Microcontrollers,Controlling circuit
and dc motors.
In this project we used
40 pin Microcontroller. Its 40th pin is VCC pin. Its 20th
pin is Ground pin. Pin no 18th and 19th pin is
crystal pins. We used 12Mhz crystal for Clock.9th pin is
For reset circuit we
used 10µfd and 10k resistance. Its called power on reset. We used
port 1 as a input port and port 2 as a output port.
In this project we
provide a 5 volt dc power supply. This power supply is truly
regulated power supply. Pin no 10 is connected to the negative
supply. Here we supply a negative voltage on this pin. Crystal is
connected to the pin no 4 and 5 of the microcontroller.
provide a clock signal to run the vehicle and process all the
internal requirement of the circuit. We use two sensor and these
two sensor are connected to the p3.4 and p3.5 of the
microcontroller. Infra red led is directly connected to the power
supply. For the regulated power supply we use ic 7805 as a regulator
to provide a fix 5 volt power supply.
When we move the robot
on black surface then infra red light is not reflected from the
surface. When infra red light is not reflected from the surface then
infra red sensor is not getting a signal. We program the robot like
this when sense sense the light then it means position of sensor
is on the white line. If the sensor is on white line then one motor
change its direction and due to that robot change its path and when
both the sensor on black surface then only vehicle move forward. We
use two sensor for two motor’s. if the both the sensor on black
surface then vehicle move forward , if one sensor is on white line
then vehicle change its direction. Microcontroller provide a signal
to the motor circuit. Motor is not directly connected with the
microcontroller. For the safety of the main processor we interface
the motor with optocoupler circuit. Here we use pc 817 ( 4 pin opto
coupler) to interface the micro controller with the motor circuit.
We use H bridge circuit with the motor. H bridge basically control
the movement of the motor. With the help of this H bridge we change
the direction of the motor. We use four transistor circuit with each
motor. We are using four transistor circuit. Out of these four
transistor two transistor is NPN and two transistor and PNP
transistor. One NPN and One PNP provide a one direction voltage and
motor moves on one direction. Second NPN and second PNP transistor
again change the direction of the motor automatically.
electric motor converts
electrical energy into
mechanical energy. The reverse task, that of converting
mechanical energy into electrical energy, is accomplished by a
generator or dynamo.
Traction motors used on
locomotives often perform both tasks if the locomotive is
dynamic brakes. Electric motors are found in household
appliances such as fans, exhaust fans, fridges, washing machines,
pool pumps and fan-forced ovens.
electric motors work by
electromagnetism, but motors based on other electromechanical
phenomena, such as
electrostatic forces and the
piezoelectric effect, also exist. The fundamental principle upon
which electromagnetic motors are based is that there is a
mechanical force on any current-carrying wire contained within a
magnetic field. The force is described by the
Lorentz force law and is perpendicular to both the wire and the
magnetic field. Most magnetic motors are rotary, but
linear motors also exist. In a rotary motor, the rotating part
(usually on the inside) is called the
rotor, and the stationary part is called the
stator. The rotor rotates because the wires and magnetic field
are arranged so that a
torque is developed about the rotor's axis. The motor contains
electromagnets that are wound on a frame. Though this frame is
often called the
armature, that term is often erroneously applied. Correctly, the
armature is that part of the motor across which the input
voltage is supplied. Depending upon the design of the machine,
either the rotor or the stator can serve as the armature.
simple DC electric motor. When the coil is powered, a magnetic field
is generated around the armature. The left side of the armature is
pushed away from the left magnet and drawn toward the right, causing
Types of transistor
There are two types of standard transistors, NPN and PNP, with
different circuit symbols. The letters refer to the layers of
semiconductor material used to make the transistor. Most transistors
used today are NPN because this is the easiest type to make from
silicon. This page is mostly about NPN transistors and if you are
new to electronics it is best to start by learning how to use these
The leads are labelled base (B), collector (C) and emitter (E).
These terms refer to the internal operation of a transistor but they
are not much help in understanding how a transistor is used, so just
treat them as labels!
Darlington pair is two transistors connected together to give a
very high current gain.
In addition to standard (bipolar junction) transistors, there are
field-effect transistors which are usually referred to as FETs. They
have different circuit symbols and properties and they are not (yet)
covered by this page.
diagram shows the two current paths through a transistor. You can
build this circuit with two standard 5mm red LEDs and any general
purpose low power NPN transistor (BC108, BC182 or BC548 for
The small base current controls the larger collector current.
When the switch is closed
a small current flows into the base (B) of the transistor. It is
just enough to make LED B glow dimly. The transistor amplifies this
small current to allow a larger current to flow through from its
collector (C) to its emitter (E). This collector current is large
enough to make LED C light brightly.
When the switch is open
no base current flows, so the transistor switches off the collector
current. Both LEDs are off.
A transistor amplifies current and can be used as a switch.
This arrangement where the emitter (E) is in the controlling circuit
(base current) and in the controlled circuit (collector current) is
called common emitter mode. It is the most widely used arrangement
for transistors so it is the one to learn first.
AT89C2051 and H-Bridge driver L293D were used to control direction
and speed of motor.
CIRCUIT AND THEORY ARRANGEMENT
CHECKING AVAILABILITY OF COMPONENTS
COMPONENT INSERTION AND SOLDERING
REWORK OR TROOUBLE SHOOTING
Microcontroller Programmer Kit
LCD display 16*2
Resistances 100 ohm,330 ohm
Crystal 12 Mhz
Easy to use
With LCD display no need of PC