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IR robot

 

 

Introduction-

 

In this project we use will control robot with  TV remote.

We will use philps 70 channel TV remote. In the rxer end we will use TSOP1738 to decode that signal .sensor will give signal to mirocntroller. Microntroller will give that data to relay drive circuit or H bride circuit.

If H brude will good enough to give sufficient current to motors then we will use H- bridge circuit. If not then we will use relay circuit to operate motors. We will optocouplers in between micron roller and H bridge circuit.

In this project we will control robot with infrared sensor remote. We will control different functions of moving robot. As we know the value of robotics it can be used in biomedical industry, domestic, food, leather, autoparts etc. In this project we will make remote which will have functions to control robot like forward, backward, right and left. There will be six functions. We will use 89c051 microcontroller for this function. We will give 9v supply to remote with 9v dc battery available in the market. We will use 7805 voltage regulator for 5v dc supply. For input to microcontroller there will be microswitches. There will be complementary push pull power amplifier after Microcontroller output.

For that we will use 548 npn transistors 558 pnp. It will amplify data so that it will not destroy in the way. After that it will be amplify and led will convert that signal into phpt signal . On reciver end photodide will amplify that signal and will give it to microcontroller. Microcontroller will give signal to optocoupler. Here optocoupler will  worl as a isolator after that h bridge will amplify that signal and will give signal according to rxed signal

Automation requires precisely rotating motor which accelerates / decelerates very fast & stops at precise predetermined position without any error, and also has holding torque so that the motor-shaft position is maintained. AUTO CONTROLS make stepper motor controllers are based on H-bridge configuration with facility of having constant current supplied to the motor.

Stepper motor controllers are MOSFET based and utilize  high voltage D.C. Supply at constant current mode. Hence, the stepper motor can run at higher speed up to 1000 rpm and above. Stepper motor controllers can achieve the acceleration of 100 m/Sec2. to zero speed to stop the motor from running speed, with rated torque. The time of Acc & Dec. will vary as per the load and GD2 of the load to overcome inertia force.

the smallest step available is 0.9o. Hence stepper motor follows the step of 0.9o per step, It can be used in open loop system. Hence, the controllers become simpler.

 

 

An electric motor converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. The reverse task, that of converting mechanical energy into electrical energy, is accomplished by a generator or dynamo. Traction motors used on locomotives often perform both tasks if the locomotive is equipped with dynamic brakes. Electric motors are found in household appliances such as fans, exhaust fans, fridges, washing machines, pool pumps and fan-forced ovens.

Most electric motors work by electromagnetism, but motors based on other electromechanical phenomena, such as electrostatic forces and the piezoelectric effect, also exist. The fundamental principle upon which electromagnetic motors are based is that there is a mechanical force on any current-carrying wire contained within a magnetic field. The force is described by the Lorentz force law and is perpendicular to both the wire and the magnetic field. Most magnetic motors are rotary, but linear motors also exist. In a rotary motor, the rotating part (usually on the inside) is called the rotor, and the stationary part is called the stator. The rotor rotates because the wires and magnetic field are arranged so that a torque is developed about the rotor's axis. The motor contains electromagnets that are wound on a frame. Though this frame is often called the armature, that term is often erroneously applied. Correctly, the armature is that part of the motor across which the input voltage is supplied. Depending upon the design of the machine, either the rotor or the stator can serve as the armature.

A simple DC electric motor. When the coil is powered, a magnetic field is generated around the armature. The left side of the armature is pushed away from the left magnet and drawn toward the right, causing rotation.

WELCOME TO THE WORLD OF THE MICROCONTROLLERS.

 

Look around. Notice the smart “intelligent” systems? Be it the T.V, washing machines, video games, telephones, automobiles, aero planes, power systems, or any application having a LED or a LCD as a user interface, the control is likely to be in the hands of a micro controller!

Measure and control, that’s where the micro controller is at its best.

Micro controllers are here to stay. Going by the current trend, it is obvious that micro controllers will be playing bigger and bigger roles in the different activities of our lives.

So where does this scenario leave us? Think about it……

The world of Micro controllers

What is the primary difference between a microprocessor and a micro controller? Unlike the microprocessor, the micro controller can be considered to be a true “Computer on a chip”.

In addition to the various features like the ALU, PC, SP and registers found on a microprocessor, the micro controller also incorporates features like the ROM, RAM, Ports, timers, clock circuits, counters, reset functions etc.

While the microprocessor is more a general-purpose device, used for read, write and calculations on data, the micro controller, in addition to the above functions also controls the environment.

We have used a whole lot of technical terms already! Don’t get worried about the meanings at this point. We shall understand these terms as we proceed further

For now just be aware of the fact, that all these terms literally mean what they say.

Bits and Bytes

Before starting on the 8051, here is a quick run through on the bits and bytes. The basic unit of data for a computer is a bit. Four bits make a nibble. Eight bits or two nibbles make a byte. Sixteen bits or four nibbles or two bytes make a word.

1024 bytes make a kilobyte or 1KB, and 1024 KB make a Mega Byte or 1MB.

Thus when we talk of an 8-bit register, we mean the register is capable of holding data of 8 bits only.

The 8051

The 8051 developed and launched in the early 80`s, is one of the most popular micro controller in use today. It has a reasonably large amount of built in ROM and RAM. In addition it has the ability to access external memory.

The generic term `8x51` is used to define the device. The value of x defining the kind of ROM, i.e. x=0, indicates none, x=3, indicates mask ROM, x=7, indicates EPROM and x=9 indicates EEPROM or Flash.

 

 

 

Components Required

 

Equipment:-

Filer,Cutter,Soldering Iron,

·        Hardware:-

 

Wood pieces- 1.5” * 5”

Dc Motors

Screws 1”

Warshels

Nut 1.5”

Metallic sheet

 

Electronic components-

 

IC89C051,

UN203,

Diodes in4001,

and 5v regulated supply,

 resistances,

IC programmer for 89c051

 

·        Software:-

Keil compiler or UMPS for programming

Window xp

 

 

 

Bibliography:

 

www.ludhianaprojects.com/robotics

 

http://www.sciencejoywagon.com/physicszone/lesson/otherpub/wfendt/electricmotor.htm