this project we use will control robot with TV remote.
will use philps 70 channel TV remote. In the rxer end we will use
TSOP1738 to decode that signal .sensor will give signal to
mirocntroller. Microntroller will give that data to relay drive
circuit or H bride circuit.
brude will good enough to give sufficient current to motors then we
will use H- bridge circuit. If not then we will use relay circuit to
operate motors. We will optocouplers in between micron roller and H
this project we will control robot with infrared sensor remote. We
will control different functions of moving robot. As we know the
value of robotics it can be used in biomedical industry, domestic,
food, leather, autoparts etc. In this project we will make remote
which will have functions to control robot like forward, backward,
right and left. There will be six functions. We will use 89c051
microcontroller for this function. We will give 9v supply to remote
with 9v dc battery available in the market. We will use 7805 voltage
regulator for 5v dc supply. For input to microcontroller there will
be microswitches. There will be complementary push pull power
amplifier after Microcontroller output.
that we will use 548 npn transistors 558 pnp. It will amplify data
so that it will not destroy in the way. After that it will be
amplify and led will convert that signal into phpt signal . On
reciver end photodide will amplify that signal and will give it to
microcontroller. Microcontroller will give signal to optocoupler.
Here optocoupler will worl as a isolator after that h bridge will
amplify that signal and will give signal according to rxed signal
Automation requires precisely rotating motor which accelerates /
decelerates very fast & stops at precise predetermined position
without any error, and also has holding torque so that the
motor-shaft position is maintained.
make stepper motor controllers are based on H-bridge configuration
with facility of having constant current supplied to the motor.
controllers are MOSFET based and utilize high voltage D.C. Supply
at constant current mode. Hence, the stepper motor can run at higher
speed up to 1000 rpm and above. Stepper motor controllers can
achieve the acceleration of 100 m/Sec2. to zero speed to
stop the motor from running speed, with rated torque. The time of
Acc & Dec. will vary as per the load and GD2 of the load
to overcome inertia force.
smallest step available is 0.9o. Hence stepper motor
follows the step of 0.9o per step, It can be used in open
loop system. Hence, the controllers become simpler.
electric motor converts
electrical energy into
mechanical energy. The
reverse task, that of converting mechanical energy into electrical
energy, is accomplished by a
generator or dynamo.
Traction motors used on
locomotives often perform
both tasks if the locomotive is equipped with
dynamic brakes. Electric
motors are found in household appliances such as fans, exhaust fans,
fridges, washing machines, pool pumps and fan-forced ovens.
electric motors work by
motors based on other electromechanical phenomena, such as
electrostatic forces and
also exist. The fundamental principle upon which electromagnetic
motors are based is that there is a
mechanical force on any
current-carrying wire contained within a magnetic field. The force
is described by the
Lorentz force law and is
perpendicular to both the wire and the magnetic field. Most magnetic
motors are rotary, but
linear motors also exist.
In a rotary motor, the rotating part (usually on the inside) is
rotor, and the stationary
part is called the
stator. The rotor rotates
because the wires and magnetic field are arranged so that a
torque is developed about
the rotor's axis. The motor contains
electromagnets that are
wound on a frame. Though this frame is often called the
armature, that term is
often erroneously applied. Correctly, the armature is that part of
the motor across which the input
voltage is supplied.
Depending upon the design of the machine, either the rotor or the
stator can serve as the armature.
simple DC electric motor. When the coil is powered, a magnetic field
is generated around the armature. The left side of the armature is
pushed away from the left magnet and drawn toward the right, causing
WELCOME TO THE WORLD OF THE MICROCONTROLLERS.
around. Notice the smart “intelligent” systems? Be it the T.V,
washing machines, video games, telephones, automobiles, aero planes,
power systems, or any application having a LED or a LCD as a user
interface, the control is likely to be in the hands of a micro
Measure and control, that’s where the micro controller is at its
Micro controllers are here to stay. Going by the current trend, it
is obvious that micro controllers will be playing bigger and bigger
roles in the different activities of our lives.
So where does this scenario leave us? Think about it……
The world of Micro controllers
is the primary difference between a microprocessor and a micro
controller? Unlike the microprocessor, the micro controller can be
considered to be a true “Computer on a chip”.
In addition to the various features like the ALU, PC, SP and
registers found on a microprocessor, the micro controller also
incorporates features like the ROM, RAM, Ports, timers, clock
circuits, counters, reset functions etc.
While the microprocessor is more a general-purpose device, used for
read, write and calculations on data, the micro controller, in
addition to the above functions also controls the environment.
We have used a whole lot of technical terms already! Don’t get
worried about the meanings at this point. We shall understand these
terms as we proceed further
For now just be aware
of the fact, that all these terms literally mean what they say.
Bits and Bytes
Before starting on the 8051, here is a quick run through on the
bits and bytes. The basic unit of data for a computer is a bit. Four
bits make a nibble. Eight bits or two nibbles make a byte. Sixteen
bits or four nibbles or two bytes make a word.
1024 bytes make a kilobyte or 1KB, and 1024 KB make a Mega Byte or
Thus when we talk of an 8-bit register, we mean the register is
capable of holding data of 8 bits only.
The 8051 developed and launched in the early 80`s, is one of the
most popular micro controller in use today. It has a reasonably
large amount of built in ROM and RAM. In addition it has the ability
to access external memory.
The generic term `8x51` is used to define the device. The value of x
defining the kind of ROM, i.e. x=0, indicates none, x=3, indicates
mask ROM, x=7, indicates EPROM and x=9 indicates EEPROM or Flash.
pieces- 1.5” * 5”
programmer for 89c051
compiler or UMPS for programming