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IR MOVING
PLATFORM

 

 

 

Introduction

In this project we will control DC geared motor using IR sensors.  We will sense IR sensors.Using IR sensors we. will check the object. When object will be detected then platform will move. When there will no object detected then  our moving platform will stop.

We will use 12v 100 rpm geared motors.

We will work use TSOP1738, which will work 38Kh  frequency. This project is very helpful to control home appliances and machinery .tsop 1738 means it work at 38Khz .infra red control project is very popular project in over all. Commercially it is very useful overall. With the help of microcontroller. We control the  output  devices in the receiver circuit. For this purpose we use two micrcontroller in this project. Here we use  ATMEL microcontroller in the transmitter and receiver circuit. In atmel series  , here we use ic 89s51 as a main processor.. and ic 89c51 in the receiver circuit as a main receiver  circuit..

 

Firsltly we discuss the circuit of infra red transmitter. In this project out main  part of this transmitter is  our programming.

 

In the 89s51 microcontroller only two ports are available.. port p1 and port p3. We connect all the switches and output infra red led is connected to the  port p3 

 Pin no 12 to pin no 19 is port 1 ouput pins. On this pins we connect a  push to on switches . One point of the switch is connected to the pins of the microcontroller and other pin is connected to the ground pin. Port p1.0 and port p1.1 is special pins of this microcontroller, so we connect a two pull up resistor to this pins.

 

 

Pin no 20 is connected to the positive supply. Pin no 10 is connected to the negative supply. Output infra red led is connected to the port p3.7. Infra red led is connected to the port p3.7 via pnp transistor. Here we use pnp transistor because output of the microcontroller is just negative so it is only capable to drive   the pnp transistor. Pin no 1 is connected to the reset components via one capacitor and resistor 10 k in series. These two components auto reset the micrcontroller on power on . We transmit the data  from the microcontroller in the serial communication. . Tx pin of the micrcontroller is pin 3 of  this ic port p3.1. Here port p3.1 is also connected to the INT0 pin to give a timer 0 intruppt.  Here we use total 10 ouput from the micrcontroller with  frequency of 36 k hertz.

 

Now we explain how we transmit the data from the micrcontroller in serial communication

 

 

y1:     setb p3.7      output data from pin no 11 of the micrcontroller

        jb p3.5,nxt9   by this command we check the pressing key

        jmp send9     if the p3.5 is not pressing then move to nxt9 location or

                             if the key is press then go to the send 9        

 

send9:  mov a,#0ah  load the accumulator with  data 0a h

            mov     sbuf,a   put the data in the sbuf resistor, this resistor  is responsible for  serial communication

     

The 8051 has a serial data communication circuit that uses register sbuff to hold data. Register SCON controls data communication, register PCON controls data rates, and pin RXD and TXD connect to the serial  data network. SBUFF is physically two register. One is write only and is used to hold data to be transmitted out of the 8051 via TXD. The other is read only and hold  received data from external source via RXD. Both mutually exclusive register use address 99h .

 

SCON REGISTER.

 

SM1

SM2

REN

 

RB8

T1

R1

 

 

SM0 : SERIAL MODE BIT 0 FOR SELECT MODE

 

SM1 : SERIAL MODE BIT 1 FOR SELECT MODE

 

SMO           SM1            MODE        DESCRIPTION

0                 0                 0                 BAUD = f/12

0                 1                 1                 8 BIT  BAUD = VARIABLE

1                 0                 2                 9 BIT  BAUD = F/32 OR F/64

1                 1                 3                 9 BIT BAUD = VARIABLE

 

 

SM2  : MULTIPURPOSE COMMUNICATION BIT

 

REN  : RECEIVE ENABLE  BIT. SET TO 1 TO ENABLE RECEPTION

 

TB8 : TRANSMIT  PIN FOR MODE 2 AND 3

 

 

RB8 : RECEIVE PIN FOR MODE 2 AND 3

 

T1:     TRANSMIT INTRUPPT  FLAG. SET TO ONE AT THE END OF BIT 7IN MODE 0, MUST BE CLEARED BY THE PROGRAM

 

R1:    RECEIVE INTERRUPT FLAG. SET TO ONE AT THE END OF THE BIT 7 IN MODE 0

 

 

Block diagram transmitter- TV remote

 

COMPONENTS USED:

 

MICROCONTROLLER           89S52

IR sensors 5mm

DC geared motors

Gears- spur, worm , pinion

CRYSTAL                           12Mhz

Connecting wires

Plyboards

RESISTOR

        10 K          11  Pc

        50 K          2 Pc  VARIABLE

        1 K            VARIABLE

        2.2K          1 Pc

        470 OHM   1Pc

       

 

CAPACITOR

        22 PF        2 Pc

        10 MFD     1 PC

 

PUSH TO ON SWITCH 2 PC.

 

7805 REGULATOR

STEP DOWN TRANSFORMER        9-0-9

DIODE       IN 4007( 4Pc)

 

ULN2003-   1nos

TSOP1738

10K OHM VARIABLE RESISTOR

 

 

Applications:

 

Machine control

Robotics applications

Printers

Medical equipment

 

Advantage

 Easy to fabricate

Portable

Reliable

Low cost

 

BASIC NOTES ON  MICROCONTROLLER

 

 

WELCOME TO THE WORLD OF THE MICROCONTROLLERS.

 

Look around. Notice the smart “intelligent” systems? Be it the T.V, washing machines, video games, telephones, automobiles, aero planes, power systems, or any application having a LED or a LCD as a user interface, the control is likely to be in the hands of a micro controller!

Measure and control, that’s where the micro controller is at its best.

Micro controllers are here to stay. Going by the current trend, it is obvious that micro controllers will be playing bigger and bigger roles in the different activities of our lives.

So where does this scenario leave us? Think about it……

The world of Micro controllers

What is the primary difference between a microprocessor and a micro controller? Unlike the microprocessor, the micro controller can be considered to be a true “Computer on a chip”.

In addition to the various features like the ALU, PC, SP and registers found on a microprocessor, the micro controller also incorporates features like the ROM, RAM, Ports, timers, clock circuits, counters, reset functions etc.

While the microprocessor is more a general-purpose device, used for read, write and calculations on data, the micro controller, in addition to the above functions also controls the environment.

We have used a whole lot of technical terms already! Don’t get worried about the meanings at this point. We shall understand these terms as we proceed further

For now just be aware of the fact, that all these terms literally mean what they say.

Bits and Bytes

Before starting on the 8051, here is a quick run through on the bits and bytes. The basic unit of data for a computer is a bit. Four bits make a nibble. Eight bits or two nibbles make a byte. Sixteen bits or four nibbles or two bytes make a word.

1024 bytes make a kilobyte or 1KB, and 1024 KB make a Mega Byte or 1MB.

Thus when we talk of an 8-bit register, we mean the register is capable of holding data of 8 bits only.

The 8051

The 8051 developed and launched in the early 80`s, is one of the most popular micro controller in use today. It has a reasonably large amount of built in ROM and RAM. In addition it has the ability to access external memory.

The generic term `8x51` is used to define the device. The value of x defining the kind of ROM, i.e. x=0, indicates none, x=3, indicates mask ROM, x=7, indicates EPROM and x=9 indicates EEPROM or Flash.

A note on ROM

The early 8051, namely the 8031 was designed without any ROM. This device could run only with external memory connected to it. Subsequent developments lead to the development of the PROM or the programmable ROM. This type had the disadvantage of being highly unreliable.

The next in line, was the EPROM or Erasable Programmable ROM. These devices used ultraviolet light erasable memory cells. Thus a program could be loaded, tested and erased using ultra violet rays. A new program could then be loaded again.

An improved EPROM was the EEPROM or the electrically erasable PROM. This does not require ultra violet rays, and memory can be cleared using circuits within the chip itself.

Finally there is the FLASH, which is an improvement over the EEPROM. While the terms EEPROM and flash are sometimes used interchangeably, the difference lies in the fact that flash erases the complete memory at one stroke, and not act on the individual cells. This results in reducing the time for erasure.

Understanding the basic features of the 8051 core

Let’s now move on to a practical example. We shall work on a simple practical application and using the example as a base, shall explore the various features of the 8051 microcontroller.

Consider an electric circuit as follows,


The positive side (+ve) of the battery is connected to one side of a switch. The other side of the switch is connected to a bulb or LED (Light Emitting Diode). The bulb is then connected to a resistor, and the other end of the resistor is connected to the negative (-ve) side of the battery.

When the switch is closed or ‘switched on’ the bulb glows. When the switch

 

Bibliography:

www.ludhianaprojects.com/antifalling_collision robot.doc

For microcontroller programming and PCB designing

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