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Transmission line failure with RF indication

 

INTRODUCTION

 

Transmission lines are a vital part of the electrical distribution system, as they provide the path to transfer power between generation and load. Transmission lines operate at voltage levels from 69kV to 765kV, and are ideally tightly interconnected for reliable operation. we will measure transmission In this project we will detect transmission line failure . In an electric power system comprising of different complex interacting elements, there always exists a possibility of disturbance and fault. This is used to find the fault in transmission lines with the RF indication. The other advantage of this project is the operation of the project is simple or easy or the part or components which are used in this project is easily available.

 

 

WORKING PRINCIPLE

 

In this project we will measure transmission voltage. In this project we will detect transmission line failure . we used 16*2 LCD display to indicate failure. We used Microcontroller 89s52. 89s52 is 8 bit single chip CPU. It contain inbuilt 8k ROM and 256 byte RAM.

89s52 is 40 pin ic having four ports p0,p1,p2 and p3.  Benefit on using 89s52 is low cost. We can design PLC-programmable logic controller using 89s52. we detctected different  types of faults and checked fault at different locations. We  display faults at LCD. We connected LCD 16*2 at port0. We connected RS,RW and EN  at pin p2.5, p2.4 and p2.3 respectively. We  first of all all step down the voltage  then will give to rectifier .  For rectification purpose we will use IN4007 diode. After rectification we  filtered DC supply. After rectification we will convert 12 v to  5v using LM7805. 78 indicates+ve voltage and 5v.

                                   We will use RF transmitter and RF receiver . RF receiver will show indication RF remote control which is built using HT12E and HT12D chips. The remote control is built using RF encoder chip HT12E that will generate different codes. These codes will be transmitted by 434 MHz RF transmitter. At the receiving side these codes will be received by 434 MHz RF receiver and decoded by RF decoder chip HT12D. in the transmitter side which will attach with car we will sensor for accident detection. Sensors will give signal to HT12E . HT12E is a 18 pin ic. It converts  bit data input to serial output. It has 12 address lines to send data to particular receiver.

                               In this project we make attendance system using RFID. In this project we used 433Mhz RF transmitter and Receiver. We used 89s51 . LCD 16*2 connected to MCU at port 0 of MCU. Output of HT12D connected to MCU at port pin no 1 tp 4. Pot 1 pin 5 to 8 connected to four switches to check total attendance of each candidate. In this project we are using UHF frequencies of RF. LEDs connected at port 2 pin p2.0,p2.1,p2.2,and p2.6. LCD rs, rw ,en connected to p2.5,p2.4 and p2.3.HT12 E and HT12D s pin 1 to 9 connected to ground giving low. These are address pins of HT12E and HT12D. Pin no 10 to 14 of HT12 E are inputs of IC and 17 no pin is output pin. Pin no 10 -14 of  HT12D is ouput pin and 14 is input pin. Crystal pin of HT12E is 15 and 16 .this  project we will  make one transmitter and RF receiver. RF remote control which is built using HT12E and HT12D chips. The remote control is built using RF encoder chip HT12E that will generate different codes. These codes will be transmitted by 434 MHz RF transmitter. At the receiving side these codes will be received by 434 MHz RF receiver and decoded by RF decoder chip HT12D. These codes are fed to 89C51 to take a controlling action on transmitter.

 

 

 


 

COMPONENTS USED

 

INTEGRATED CIRCUIT:

RF module- 433 MHz

Ic89s52

PC817- 4nos.

HT12E

HT12D

IC555            :     Timer

IC7805          :     Voltage regulator

 

TRANSISTOR :

T1-T5                  :     BC548

T6-T8                  :     BC557

 

RESISTORS:

R1-R3              :     1 K

R4-R14            :     10KΩ

R15-R17          :     100KΩ

R18                  :     56KΩ 

R19-R20          :     470E

R21                  :     100 E   

R22                  :     4KΩ    

 

DIODES:

 

D1-D10            :    1N4007

CAPACITORS

C1-C2            :     27 PF   

C3-C4            :     470 F

C5                  :     10 F

C6                  :     100F

  

TRANSFORMERS

9-0-9, 1A.

 

CRYSTALL OSCILATOR

3.579 MHz

 

OTHERS

LCD              

CD Driver 

LED   

 

Miscellaneous

 

Hard Board

Wires

Soldering Iron

Soldering Paste

Flux (Paste)

 

 

 

ADVANTAGES

 

 

1.      It is easy and low cost project.

2.      It  is easy to find the find the fault and faulty condition

3.      The operation of this project is simple. or the component are easily available .

 

PRECAUTIONS:

 

 While wiring, assembly and installation of the circuit, make sure that you      

1. Use    good quality wires.

2. Use good quality   relay

3. Iron soldering temperature should be below 350 degree cent.

4. Use good quality soldering wire.

 

APPLICATIONS

1.It is used in substations  to find the fault.

2. used to measure the losses.

3. Insulation failure.

 

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