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Room Cleaner robot

 

Introduction

In this project we will  make the robot which will move automatically with microcntroller. When any obstacle come in the way of that robot then our arm will push that object. ARM will be single motor based.Then it will move again forward. When it will found any wall right side or left side..In this project we use ic 89c2051 microcontroller as a main processor. IC 89c2051 is a 20 pin microcontroller. This ic is a 20 pin version of 40 pin main atmel ic 89c51 microcontroller. We program this ic with the help of computer. Software is written in the assembley language  and then transfer into the blank ic with the help of  programmer kit.

In addition with the anti falling concept we use auto collosion concept.

In this project we show that how we design a future vehicle for automation. By using this automation we design the vehicle for  auto path finding. We use this concept for remote area. Where we control the robot from remote are . Or we send the machine  in any small tunnel. If we fit a wireless camera with this robot then it is possible for us to capture the all detail of facing area.

 

In this project we use two sensor. These sensor are reflective type sensor. When infra red rays reflective from any surface then  we sense this  reflective signal and pass to the microcontroller circuit. Microcontroller  circuit sense the input signal and  compare this signal with the other eye signal and then change the direction of one motor. When there is no deflection from any sensor then there is no signal from the sensor and at that time  both the motor of the vehicle run smoothly to the forward direction.

 

In this vehicle we use total two motor for the forward and reverse direction. When one motor stop  then  vehicle change its direction for  a short second and then again came to the origional position.

 

Main circuit is based on the microcontroller. Here in this project we use 89c2051 microcontroller as a main processor. Motor’s control by a H bridge circuit. For two motor we use two H bridge circuit. Here in this project we use two slow speed dc gear motor .

 

                                                                                               

Circuit working

In this project we use ic 89c2051 is a main processor. IC 89c2051 is a family member of 8051 micrcontroller. Pin no 20 is connected to the positive  supply. Pin no 10 is connected to the negative supply. Pin no 1 is  act as a reset pin. On this pin we use one capacitor and resistor network. Two infra red sensor is connected as a collosion sensor. We using two infra red sensor and infra red sensor for a anti falling concept. These sensors are connected to the port p3.0, p3.3 and port p3.4. On this pin we directly connect a photodiode  as a receiver  sensor. In fra red led is directly connected  with the 5 volt supply through 100 ohm resistor. Port p1.0 , p1.1 and port p1.2 and port p1.3 is output pin. IN this controller we use negative input and negative output circuit. Output of the microcontroller is connected to the  four different optocoupler  connectivity. Output of the optocoupler is  inverted by the inverter circuit. Output of the inverter circuit is  connected to the H bridge circuit. Here we use H bridge circuit to control the direction of the motor. IN this  project we use two slow speed motor so with the help of dc motor we move forward and reverse the robot.. when we insert the battery then robot move to forward. If there is any obstruction  on one sensor then one photodiode is get a signal and so that negative signal is applied to the  photodiode . Photodiode receive the signal and so on microcontroller  stop one motor and so that robot move to another direction. Now if the robot sense a bit then depth sensor active and stop both the motor. Now when both motor stop and with small delay motor reverse back to  few step . after taking back few step robot changes its direction  to right and again move forward. So when robot falling any depth then  takes back few step and changes its direction  and again go forward

 

P1.0 and p1.1 is connected to the one motor. When both the pins are high logic then motor stop. At the same time when both the  pins are 0  then again motor stop. To  move a motor forward and reverse we provide a  high logic on one pin and 0 logic on second pin. If we change the logic 0 and 1 then we change the  direction of motor

 

BASIC OF ROBOTICS

ROBOTICS:

A mechanical device that sometimes resembles a human and is capable of performing a variety of often complex human tasks on command or by being programmed in advance is defined as a robot

 

A Robot never becomes fulfill until it can take decisions. We can’t go for computers for the computation & intelligence. But we can use single chip microcontrollers for controlling. This robot is not going to do any big tasks there will only be predefined tasks. The robot’s full control is embedded into one chip which is otherwise known as embedded systems designing.

 

To make a robot we must surely know to at least use a single microcontroller. So let us see about Embedded System thru 8051.

 

 

 

Motors

 

To make the robots mobile we need to have motors and the control circuitry that could control the motors. There are different kinds of motors available for different application.

 

1.     DC motor

2.     Stepper motor

3.     Servo motor

 

DC motors

 

            These are the motors that are commonly found in the toys and the tape recorders. These motors change the direction of rotation by changing the polarity. Most chips can't pass enough current or voltage to spin a motor. Also, motors tend to be electrically noisy (spikes) and can slam power back into the control lines when the motor direction or speed is changed.

Specialized circuits (motor drivers) have been developed to supply motors with power and to isolate the other ICs from electrical problems. These circuits can be designed such that they can be completely separate boards, reusable from project to project.

A very popular circuit for driving DC motors (ordinary or gearhead) is called an H-bridge. It's called that because it looks like the capital letter 'H' on classic schematics. The great ability of an H-bridge circuit is that the motor can be driven forward or backward at any speed, optionally using a completely independent power source.

This circuit known as the H-bridge (named for its topological similarity to the letter "H") is commonly used to drive motors. In this circuit two of four transistors are selectively enabled to control current flow through a motor.

 

opposite pair of transistors (Transistor One and Transistor Three) is enabled, allowing current to flow through the motor. The other pair is disabled, and can be thought of as out of the circuit.

By determining which pair of transistors is enabled, current can be made to flow in either of the two directions through the motor. Because permanent-magnet motors reverse their direction of turn when the current flow is reversed, this circuit allows bidirectional control of the motor.

 

 

Components required:

 

MCU 89S52

IR SENSORS 5MM

Crystal 11.592 MHz- 1 nos.

On/off Switch- 1 nos.

Diodes IN 4007- 10 nos.

Optocoupler 817- 2nos.

Cap 10µf,0.1 µf,330µf

Transistors -547or 548

Resistances 330 Ω,8.2kΩ,30pf

LED-10 NOS

TYRES

PLY

IC7805  voltage Regulator

Motors dc – 3NOS

Infrared sensors set

Copper Clad board

Ply board

Ferric Chloride

Wires

Soldering iron

Soldering wire

Flux

 

 

Hardware required-

 

8051 programmer universal kit

CRO 20 Mhz

Digital multimeter

 

Software Required:-

 

Keil

OrCAD

 

 

 

Bibliography

 

www.ludhianaprojects.com/antifalling.doc

http://www.kmitl.ac.th/~kswichit%20/#8051

http://www.bobblick.com/techref/projects/hbridge/hbridge.html